NCA and the BAC

The influential Backwards Anaphora Constraint (BAC) has it that anaphoric elements (of which ellipsis sites are a special case) may not precede and command their antecedents.

Assess Null Complement Anaphora in the light of the Backwards Anaphora Constraint (Hankamer and Sag 1976, Deep and surface anaphora), referencing especially cases like:

  1. Her husband disapproves when she smokes.
  2. Han nekter alltid når jeg foreslår noe. // he refuses always when I propose something
  3. I fear he will not return if he goes to England.